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Plagiarism and Citing

Adapted from the Victoria University Library, Melbourne LibGuide.

Defining Terms

Direct Quote

A direct quote is one that is copied exactly as presented by the original author. This would include the same wording, punctuation, diacritical marks etc.

To signal that the text is not yours, a direct quote is placed in inverted commas or quotation marks. For example:

Aldrigue (2016) reported that 'practitioners diagnosed TMD primarily based on medical history and physical examination'. 

It is not advisable to use too many direct quotes in your writing. They should be used sparingly. It is generally better practice to paraphrase or summarise as this demonstrates your understanding of the work of others and your skill as a writer.

Also, don’t forget to reference the source.


Paraphrasing refers to rewriting someone’s ideas using your own words and is used frequently in academic writing. Paraphrasing is more than changing just one or two words and some punctuation. It is about using your own words to represent the original text. Of course, you still need to reference the source to avoid inadvertently plagiarising someone’s work. For example:

Aldrigue (2016) reported in his systematic review that practitioners based their TMD diagnosis primarily on medical history and physical examination.

Paraphrasing is any easy concept to understand but difficult to do well, particularly when paraphrasing work that is complex and dense (i.e. technical terminology).


Summarizing is used in academic writing to encapsulate, synthesize or focus on a main argument that is presented in a text.  For example, a findings from a systematic review on management of temporomandibular disease can be summarized in a few short sentences. When you summarize, it is similar to paraphrasing in that your own words are used. Also, sources must be referenced.

Primary Source

A primary source is a text or object that is the original work of an author or creator, rather than produced by someone else.  For instance, if you are using a journal article as a primary source you are using the journal article that was written by the author him/herself.  This journal article may present the author’s data, findings, reflections etc.

A primary source can be a written document such as a book, article, letter or speech. Alternatively it could be a creative piece such a video, poem, artwork, piece of music etc.

Remember to reference the source.

Secondary Source

A secondary source is one that interprets, references, analyzes or draws on a primary source. For instance, writers of a journal article may cite the work of a researcher mentioned in a journal article they have used for a literature review but they may not necessarily have read that researcher’s work for themselves. The writers would need to cite the secondary source. For example,

Piper (cited in Jones, 2012) also undertook a range of studies involving preschool aged children who were diagnosed with Asperger’s syndrome and their reactions to various musical genres.

In this case, the writers read the work of Jones but not the work of Piper.