PICO: A mnemonic device to help formulate a clinical question and search strategy by identifying key concepts.
|P||Patient/Population/Problem||Describe your patient or the problem - be specific|
|I||Intervention/Indicator||Treatment, cause, prognostic factor, etc.|
|C||Comparison/Control||Compared to another treatment or standard of care (optional)|
|O||Outcome||Improvement or negative effects?|
MOST COMMON TYPE OF CLINICAL QUESTIONS:
|THERAPY||determining the effect of interventions on patient-important outcomes|
|DIAGNOSIS||establishing the power of a test to differentiate between those with and without a target condition or disease|
|HARM||ascertaining the effects of potentially harmful agents on patient-important outcomes|
|PROGNOSIS||estimating a patient's future course|
4 ELEMENTS OF THE CLINICAL QUESTION (PICO) - use for therapy questions
What are their most important characteristics?
Describe your patient specifically:
ALWAYS include this piece in your search.
What do you want to do for the patient?
Almost always include this piece in your search.
What is the alternate intervention, if any?
It is less common to include this piece in a search.
What are you hoping to achieve, measure, or change for the patient?
Could also be the result NOT desired.
Sometimes include this piece in your search.
1. Does Constraint-induced Aphasia Therapy (intervention) improve aphasia (outcome) in stroke patients (patient)?
2. In kindergarteners (patient), is individual pull-out treatment (intervention) more effective than group pull-out treatment (comparison) for improving articulation disorders (outcome)?