|Integrative||Present the state of the science, contribute to theory development, and have direct applicability to practice and policy (Whittemore & Knafl, 2005).||As comprehensive as possible||Some quality assessment, but it may not be possible to assess quality on all types of included evidence||Tables, diagrams, and narrative||Covering diverse methodologies (theoretical, empirical, experimental, non-experimental).|
|Mapping||Maps and categorizes existing literature in order to identify gaps for primary research.||Tends to be comprehensive. May be limited by time and scope constraints.||Does not include formal quality assessment.||Graphs and/or tables||Defining the literature in a topic area.|
|Scoping||Sometimes thought of as the pre-work for a systematic review. Aims to identify nature and extent of research evidence (usually includes ongoing research).||As comprehensive as possible. Determined by time and scope.||Does not include formal quality assessment.||Primarily tables, some narrative.||Exploring the literature, rather than answering a specific question.|
|Rapid||Assesses what is already known about a policy or practice issue. Uses many of the systematic review methods, but often abridge due to time constraints.||As comprehensive as possible within the given time.||Includes formal assessment as possible within time constraints.||Narrative, tables||Making healthcare decisions, using evidence synthesis, when there is a time crunch|
|Seeks to answer "what works for whom in what circumstances, in what respects and how?" Complex interventions are not separated from delivery contexts.||After identifying and defining program theories, qualitative and quantitative data is gathered from a variety of sources.||Quality is assessed to determine suitability||Typically narrative, can be graphical and tabular||Policy and public service|
|Umbrella||A review of reviews. Compiles evidence from multiple reviews into one.||Identifies relevant reviews. Does not search for primary studies.||Assesses included studies for quality. Includes quality assessment of included reviews.||Graphs, tables, and narrative||Umbrella reviews provide a ready means for decision makers in healthcare to gain a clear understanding of a broad topic area. (Aromataris, et al., 2015)|
Adapted from Grant, M. J. & Booth, A. (2009). A typology of reviews. Health Information and Libraries Journal. 29, 91-108.