Skip to main content

Plagiarism and Citing: Style guides

On this page

  • Components of a reference
  • Useful style guides
  • Citing styles for bibliographies

Useful style guides

Different subject disciplines use different referencing styles. Before you write your reference list or bibliography, check with your professor which style they prefer you to use and refer to the instructions included with your assignment.‚Äč

Components of a reference

Whichever referencing style is used, there is information which needs to be relayed to the reader of your work such as:

  • who wrote/created it
  • when was it written/created
  • what is it
  • where can it be found

In other words the information required is:

  • Author
  • Date of publication
  • Title of publication 
  • Article or chapter title (depending on the source)
  • Publisher details
  • Source location eg URL if relevant

The various referencing styles (APA, MLA, AMA, Chicago. etc.) list the rules on how this information will be presented in your work, both in-text and at the end of your work in a reference list. This includes formatting advice such as capitalization, italicization, and punctuation.

Citing styles for bibliographies

Different citing styles have different rules regarding punctuation, capitalization, abbreviations and the use of italics. Each work cited is given an in-text reference and an entry in the Reference list at the end of the document.

APA citing style Example: journal article

Pjetursson, B. E., Rast, C., Brägger, U., Schmidlin, K., Zwahlen, M., & Lang, N. P. (2009). Maxillary sinus floor elevation using the (transalveolar) osteotome technique with or without grafting material. part I: Implant survival and patients' perception. Clinical Oral Implants Research, 20(7), 667-676. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0501.2009.01704.x

AMA citing style Example: journal article

1. Pjetursson BE, Rast C, Brägger U, Schmidlin K, Zwahlen M, Lang NP. Maxillary sinus floor elevation using the (transalveolar) osteotome technique with or without grafting material. part I: Implant survival and patients' perception. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2009;20(7):667-676. Accessed Mar 24, 2017. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2009.01704.x.

Harvard citing style Example : journal article.

PJETURSSON, B.E., RAST, C., BRÄGGER, U., SCHMIDLIN, K., ZWAHLEN, M. and LANG, N.P., 2009. Maxillary sinus floor elevation using the (transalveolar) osteotome technique with or without grafting material. Part I: Implant survival and patients' perception. Clinical Oral Implants Research, 20(7), pp. 667-676.

CSE citing style Example: journal article

1. Pjetursson BE, Rast C, Brägger U, Schmidlin K, Zwahlen M, Lang NP. Maxillary sinus floor elevation using the (transalveolar) osteotome technique with or without grafting material. part I: Implant survival and patients' perception. Clin Oral Implants Res 2009 Jul;20(7):667-76.